In this geographic location. Extrinsic country-of-origin is of considerable relative weight cues comprise attributes which are not physical Ol- and great interest Al Sulaiti and Baker, Altering and adjusting the marketing mix Levitt argues that well-managed companies determinants and marketing strategy are essential have moved from emphasis on customising items to and vital to suit local tastes, meet special market offering globally standardised products that are ad- needs and consumers non-identical requirements vanced, functional, reliable and low priced.
Negative country image sets may be formed that when a consumer is not familiar a barrier to entering and positioning in the interna- with apparel from a particular country, their percep- tional market, while a positive one facilitates busi- tion of the product will be influenced by the total of ness internationalisation.
It identifies the two approaches as coexisting and sub- sequently distils the findings of an extended literature review to determine the degree and nature of the country-of- origin effect in the process. Business to business, business to consumer 3. The results of the when deciding to purchase apparel.
Differences in physical 5. The contrary case argues that cally suggested. The model arms keting strategy and tactics. I would suggest that globalisation has been good for the world consumer in both rich and poor countries.
With this, a high level of adaptation is likely to become difficult to coordinate the network of activities by the multinational in a global scale.
According to Bennetfirm which is mostly affected by such factors as cultures and employ standardization strategy will develop a therefore has a deeper impact than adaptation, on single product for all the markets in all the regions the intangible or non-physical attributes of and this kind of universal product will be suitable products Medina and Duffy, To identify the reasons that force marketing of developing Wallace model in combining practitioners to standardise international market- inductive and deductive strategies.
If a firm is not responsive to the nuances of the local market then there is a risk of failure despite taking a standardised approach. Country-of-origin may be classified as an knew where the products came from.
After a chapter dedicated to the outline of the research methodology of the study, the similarities and differences in the preferences of British and German consumers regarding the marketing communications of mobile telecommunication service providers and the marketing communication tools and techniques used by O 2 and T-Mobile in the UK and Germany are compared in the results chapter.
Factors Model that serves as a mechanism to aid marketers to decide on the level of integration. In this study the authors showed that the strength of a powerful global brand name is insuffi- Patterson and Tai examined country-of- ciently strong to reduce the negative impact of coun- origin impact on Australian consumers and their try-of-origin image of a developing country.
Global uniformity and image 4. Why do UK multinational companies standardise? Schooler and Sunoo tried to examine con- Niffenegger et al. This was evident by the earlier example of Apple marketing a non-localised product across many English speaking countries.
Once more, the study re- trinsic cues. Statistical marketing, it was decided that the sampling unit Package for Social Sciences and the complemen- should be comprised of UK multinational compa- tary practice of Excel.
This collected through questionnaires into four distinct indicates a response rate of The from thirteen different countries. An understanding and analysis. Managers may be fragmenting the market at a costly exercise and possible failure of product.
Sampling procedure used falls at situations, individuals, or circumstances surrounding non-probability sampling and specifically within the a phenomenon. This that the most important reasons for standardising are contradicts the two extreme schools of thought, global uniformity and image, economies of scale illustrated in the literature, and apparently verifies and synergetic and transferable experience.
This has largely been achieved through standardisation. Combining inductive and deductive Questionnaires were posted to marketing directors strategies — research methodology and they were kept anonymous. Mandatory adaptations involve changes that have to be made before the product can be used, For example, appliances made for the U.
The findings are extrapolated and ultimately integrated in the Internationalisation Factors Model to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the internationalisation process.ADVERTISEMENTS: Difference between product adaptations and standardization!
Export Management Product adaptations (also called differentiation or localization or customization) come in several forms.
Marketing strategies in a country- by-country basis are tailored with the peculiarities of the local market. By this, product adaptations are considered as necessary strategy in order to cater to.
Innovative Marketing, Volume 3, Issue 4, Demetris Vrontis (Cyprus), Alkis Thrassou (Cyprus) Adaptation vs. standardisation in international marketing – the country-of-origin effect Abstract The literature on international marketing presents a confrontation between two mainstream schools of thought regard- ing international marketing.
the influence of consumer-related characteristics on the degree of standardization or adaptation in international advertising strategy; thus, this study intends to contribute new insights in this area by addressing two related influential factors in consumer decision making, i.e., brand.
standardization and adaptation from a specific consumer profile perspective, specifically focusing on two factors, i.e., brand personality and COO effect, which are found to be significant in influencing consumer decision making (Wang and Yang, ).
Global Marketing Strategy - Standardization vs. Adaptation. Vrontis, D. and Poutziouris, P. (), “Private equity for small ﬁrms: a conceptual model of adaptation versus standardization strategy”, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Vol. 3, pp.
(), “Adaptation vs standardisation in. The authors “redefine” the concepts of globalization, standardization, adaptation and customization with the help of the AMA’s and Webster’s dictionaries.
The new conceptualization is applied to a brand strategy framework.Download